In the fast-paced world that we live in, cleanliness and hygiene play a vital role in maintaining our image and health. One such methodology that ensures just that is dry cleaning. Often used synonymously with professional cleaning, dry cleaning not only imparts a fresh and clean look to our clothes but also protects and extends the lifespan of our favorite pieces. However, a vast majority of us lack a complete understanding of what dry cleaning entails. From its process to its environmental and health impact as well as how individuals should care for ‘dry clean only’ items, every aspect is worth diving deep into for improved knowledge and informed decisions.
The Dry Cleaning Process
Dry cleaning, contrary to the name, is not a completely ‘dry’ process. However, it is named such because it doesn’t use water, reducing the risk of shrinkage, color loss, and fabric distortion. Instead, it involves the use of a chemical solvent to remove stains and dirt from garments. The commonly used solvents are tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), known in the industry as “perc”, and other petroleum-based cleaners.
An Overview of the Dry Cleaning Method
Dry cleaning begins with the pre-treatment of any visible stains on clothing using appropriate spotting agents. These garments are then placed into a uniquely designed machine, similar in appearance to a large, front-loading residential washer. This machine then fills with cleaning solvents and agitates the garments to dislodge any ingrained dirt. The cleaning is more comprehensive because these solvents have the ability to get into and clean the fibers, breaking down greases and oils that water and laundry detergents often have difficulty with.
Once the washing phase is completed, a fresh batch of solvents is introduced to rinse away any remaining dirt. The used solvent, now containing soil, is then captured, distilled, and reused. The garments are dried within the same machine to assure complete extraction of all remaining solvents. After drying, the items are pressed, steamed or ironed to remove any wrinkles. This method proves to be highly effective on fabrics like silk and wool, or any other delicate materials that can suffer damage from regular washing. However, dry cleaning may not remove water-soluble stains such as those from wine and juice, as effectively as it handles body oils and greases.
Environmental and Health Impact
Health and Environmental Hazards Related to Dry Cleaning Chemicals
Dry cleaning poses some significant health and environmental risks, primarily due to the chemicals involved. The most widely used solvents in the dry cleaning process are perchloroethylene, aka PERC, and hydrocarbon, both carrying potential health and environmental hazards. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regards PERC as a neurotoxin and likely human carcinogen. Overexposure to PERC could result in a range of health issues, including blurred vision, dizziness, and more severe risks like damage to the liver and kidneys.
PERC not only poses health risks but also contributes to environmental pollution. It doesn’t degrade easily and therefore pollutes the air, water, and soil, long after usage. It can seep into the ground and pollute groundwater sources in the vicinity of dry cleaning establishments. The alternative solvent, hydrocarbon, while not as health-damaging as PERC, contributes significantly to the formation of smog, thereby impacting air quality negatively.
Emerging Eco-Friendly Dry Cleaning Techniques
Given the evident environmental repercussions of traditional dry cleaning agents, emerging eco-friendly cleaning methods are progressively gaining recognition. Among them are wet cleaning, carbon dioxide cleaning, and liquid silicone cleaning. Wet cleaning, for instance, employs water and a soft washing technique, which is fundamentally safer.
The revolutionary carbon dioxide cleaning process uses pressurized CO2 as a cleaning agent. As it’s naturally occurring, it doesn’t carry the environmental burden linked to hydrocarbon or PERC. Similarly, liquid silicone cleaning harnesses a silicone-based solvent known as siloxane or D5, which harmlessly decomposes into sand, water, and carbon dioxide. These promising techniques are engineered to provide the cleaning efficiency of traditional methods but without the corresponding health or ecological implications.
Caring for Dry Clean Only Items
Understanding the ‘Dry Clean Only’ Label
Items bearing a ‘dry clean only’ label require specific handling to preserve their quality and durability. It’s generally implied that these articles should be taken to a professional dry cleaner as opposed to being washed at home, as regular washing machines may harm these sensitive items. The dry cleaning method is often necessary for garments made of delicate fabrics, adorned with intricate detailing, or structured in a particular way that could be compromised by standard washing techniques.
Do’s and Don’ts
When caring for dry clean only items at home, there are a few key points to remember. Do not attempt to wash these items in your personal washing machine or hand wash, as water and regular detergents can damage the fabric and structure. If your garment has a small spot or stain, you can try a mild fabric cleaner specifically designed for dry clean only clothes. However, be sure to do a patch test on a hidden area first to ensure it won’t bleach or discolor the fabric.
Prolong the Life of Your Dry Clean Only Clothes
One effective way of prolonging the life and quality of your dry clean only clothes is by minimising their exposure to potentially damaging elements. For example, perfume, deodorant, and body oils can all cause damage or staining over time. Therefore, it’s recommended to wear an undershirt or slip under these items to reduce direct contact with the body. Also, use padded hangers to prevent the garments from becoming misshaped and try not to overcrowd your wardrobe to avoid the clothing from crushing or creasing. Dry clean only items should be taken to a professional cleaner at least once every season or after every two to three wears, depending on the garment and how often it’s worn. Not only does professional dry cleaning preserve the garment, but it also removes any accumulated soil and odors, giving your clothes a fresh and renewed appearance.
Dry cleaning indeed forms an integral part of modern life, helping us to maintain the quality, appearance and longevity of our valued clothes, and understanding its workings gives us a better perspective of its relevance and importance. Being aware of the environmental and health impact of the chemicals involved, while navigating through the vast array of ‘dry clean only’ garments, is as crucial as having them cleaned. The process may not be entirely flawless, but with improvements in safety measures and the advent of environmentally-friendly methods, the art of dry cleaning continues to evolve. It’s clear that dry cleaning sensitivity and knowledge is primed to become more necessary, not less, in the times to come.